Chemistry - National 5 s3/s4
Online Lessons for Students in Scotland learning National 5 S3 & s4 Chemistry
Chemical Changes and Structure
Rates of Reactions
· Factors which affect rate
· Measuring reaction rate
· Calculating average rate
· The periodic table
· Structure of an atom
· Writing nuclide notation
· Simple + prefix
· Roman numeral
· Complex ions
Bonding and Properties
· Covalent bonding
· Drawing bonding diagram + shapes
· Ionic Bonding
Balancing Equations and Mole Calculations
· Calculating GFM
· Mole equation for solids
· Balancing equations
· Mole equation for liquids
· Mole calculations
· Calculation involving solids and liquids
Acids and Alkalis
· The pH scale
· Forming acids and alkalis
· Neutralisation and naming salts
· Neutralisation reactions
· Precipitation reactions
· Titration experiment
· Titration calculation
Systematic Carbon Chemistry
· Test for unsaturation
· Systematic naming
Everyday Consumer Products
· Addition Reactions of alkenes
· Carboxylic acids
Energy from Fuels
· Enthalpy Fuel Experiment
· Enthalpy Calculations
Chemistry in Society
· Metals and Reaction Oxygen
· Metals Reaction Acid and Water
· Extracting Metals
· Simple Chemical Cells
· Electrochemical Cells
· Cells without metals
· Monomers and Polymers
· Repeating Units and Copolymers
· Essential Elements and % Comp
· Haber and Otswald Process
· Preparing Soluble Salts
· Radiation Types and Penetration
· Nuclear Equations
· Calculating Half Life
Open Ended Qs
· How to answer open ended Qs
· Practise Open Ended Qs
· Chemical apparatus
· Flame Tests, Gas Tests, Collecting Gases
· Answering Apparatus Questions
Rates of reaction: The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which a chemical reaction takes place, defined as proportional to the increase in the concentration of a product per unit time and to the decrease in the concentration of a reactant per unit time.
Factors which affect rate: reactant concentration. Increasing the concentration of one or more reactants will often increase the rate of reaction. Physical state of the reactants and surface area. Temperature. Presence of a catalyst.
Measuring reaction rate: the rate of reaction can be found by measuring the amount of product formed in a certain period of time. The mass of a solid product is often measured in grams, while the volume of a gaseous product is often measured in cm3. The time period chosen may depend upon the rate of the reaction.
Calculating average rate: calculating an average rate shows the amount of change of one variable with respect to another. The other variable is commonly time and could describe the average change in distance (speed) or chemical concentrations (reaction rate).
Periodic table and atoms: in the modern periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number. The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. The number of protons define the identity of an element.
The periodic table: the table, also known as the periodic table of chemical elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements.
Structure of an atom: Atoms consist of three basic particles: protons, electrons, and neutrons. The nucleus (centre) of the atom contains the protons (positively charged) and the neutrons (no charge). The outermost regions of the atom are called electron shells and contain the electrons (negatively charged).
Nuclide notation and isotopes: standard nuclear notation shows the chemical symbol, the mass number and the atomic number of the isotope. An isotope is a variant of an element in which it has an equal number or protons but a varied number of neutrons.
Covalent bonding: a chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds.
Covalent bonding diagrams: a covalent bond consists of a shared pair of electrons. Only outer shells of electrons are involved in bonding, so the inner shells do not always have to be included in diagrams.
Shapes of molecules and diatomic elements: all diatomic molecules are linear and characterised by a single parameter which is the bond length or distance between the two atoms.
Covalent bonding properties:covalent compounds have bonds where electrons are shared between atoms. Due to the sharing of electrons, they exhibit characteristic physical properties that include lower melting points and electrical conductivity compared to ionic compounds.
Ionic bonding: a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, or between two atoms with sharply different electronegativities, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Ions and ionic bonding: ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, or between two atoms with sharply different electronegativities, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Ionic bonding properties:
Properties shared by ionic compounds; they form crystals; they have high melting points and high boiling points; they have higher enthalpies of fusion and vaporisation than molecular compounds; they’re hard and brittle; they conduct electricity when they are dissolved in water and; they’re good insulators.
Formulae and calculations: the chemical formula of a compound shows how many of each type of atom join together to make the units which make up the compound. Word equations are useful to show which chemicals react together (the reactants) and which chemicals are produced (the products). Symbol equations allow chemists to work out the masses that will react or be produced.
Naming compounds and simple chemical formulae: the primary function of chemical nomenclature is to ensure that a spoken or written chemical name leaves no ambiguity concerning to what chemical compound it is.
Roman numerals and prefixes in chemical formulae: learning intentions include how prefixes are used with chemical formula, relationship between roman numerals and valency and to explore how to write chemical formulae.
Group ions in chemical formulae: group ions contain two or more atoms and usually have a negative charge. The formulae of these ions can be found in the data booklet.
Calculating gram formula mass (GFM): The gram formula mass (GFM) of a substance is known as the mass of one mole.
Mole equation for solids: learning intentions for this lesson include understanding relationship between mass, moles and GFM. To learn how to calculate the mass, mole and GFM for different compounds and to understand how to use data booklet when completing calculations.
Balancing equations: learning intentions for this lesson include how to write chemical reactions, why chemical reactions are balanced and how to balance them.
Mole equations for solids: if you have a pure liquid or a solid, you use its density to calculate its mass and then divide the mass by the molar mass.
Calculations from balanced equations: balanced equations are used to allow chemists to calculate how much product they will produce from their reactants. The co-efficients in balanced equations represent the number of moles reacting and being produced, it is rare that this exact ratio will be used in a reaction.
Calculations involving mass and volume: lessons include how solutions are made, relationship between mass, volume, concentration and moles.
Acids and alkalis: an acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions, H+(aq), when dissolved in water. An alkali is a substance that produces hydroxide ions, OH-(aq), when dissolved in water.
The pH scale: in chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidic solutions are measured to have lower pH values than basic or alkaline solutions.
Forming acids and alkalis: an acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +(aq), when dissolved in water. An alkali is a substance that produces hydroxide ions, OH -(aq), when dissolved in water.
Neutralisation and naming salts: a salt is any compound formed by the neutralisation of an acid by a base. The name of a salt has two parts. The first part comes from the metal, metal oxide or metal carbonate. The second part comes from the acid.
Ionic formula and spectator ions: The chemical equation that shows only those elements, compounds, and ions that are directly involved in the chemical reaction. Spectator ion: An ion that does not take part in the chemical reaction and is found in solution both before and after the reaction.
Precipitation: any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravitational pull from clouds. The main forms of precipitation include drizzling, rain, sleet, snow, ice pellets, graupel and hail.
Titration: a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis to determine the concentration of an identified analyte. A reagent, termed the titrant or titrator, is prepared as a standard solution of known concentration and volume.
Systematic carbon chemistry: carbon chemistry involves many different homologous series of compounds. A homologous series is a family of hydrocarbons with similar chemical properties
Alkanes: an alkane, or paraffin, is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon–carbon bonds are single.
Cycloalkanes: the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons. In other words, a cycloalkane consists only of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a structure containing a single ring, and all of the carbon-carbon bonds are single
Alkenes: a hydrocarbon containing a carbon–carbon double bond. Alkene is often used as synonym of olefin, that is, any hydrocarbon containing one or more double bonds.
Test for unsaturation: learning intentions include unsaturation in hydrocarbons and tests for unsaturation.
Systematic naming: a systematic name is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance, out of a specific population or collection.
Isomers: molecules or polyatomic ions with identical molecular formulas — that is, same number of atoms of each element — but distinct arrangements of atoms in space.
Everyday consumer products: includes lessons on alcohols and carboxylic acids.
Alcohols: also known as alkanols, these have the hydroxyl functional group –OH. They are a homologous series. Alcohols have a wide variety of uses. While ethanol is most famous for its presence in alcoholic drinks, many other alcohols exist and are commonly used as fuels and solvents. The smallest alcohols, methanol, ethanol, and propanol, are miscible in water. The larger an alcohol gets, the lower the miscibility.
Carbolic acids: carboxylic acids, also known as alkanoic acids, all contain the carboxyl functional group –COOH. Their names all end in ‘–oic acid’. The larger a carboxylic acid gets, the lower the miscibility. The melting and boiling points of carboxylic acids increase with size due stronger intermolecular forces.
Energy from fuels: when fuels burn they release heat energy and light energy to the surroundings in exothermic reactions known as combustion reactions.
Fuels and combustion: fuels are substances that react with oxygen to release useful energy (exothermic). Most of the energy is released as heat, but light energy is also released. When fuels burn they release heat energy and light energy to the surroundings in exothermic reactions known as combustion reactions.
Enthalpy of combustion: the enthalpy of combustion of a substance is defined as the heat energy given out when one mole of a substance burns completely in oxygen.
Metals: a metal is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically malleable or ductile.
Reaction of metals: explore the bonding in metallic substances. Explore reactivity of metals and practice writing word and chemical equations.
Redox reactions: redox is a type of chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Redox reactions are characterized by the actual or formal transfer of electrons between chemical species
Extraction of metal: understand how metals are extracted from ores. Explore reduction reactions and explore electrolysis.
Electrochemical cells: an electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
Cells without metals and displacement: lessons include chemical cells, electrochemical cells with no metals and displacement reactions.
Plastics: a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that use polymers as a main ingredient.
Monomers and polymers: monomers are small molecules, mostly organic, that can join with other similar molecules to form very large molecules, or polymers. Polymers are a class of synthetic substances composed of multiples of simpler units called monomers. Polymers are chains with an unspecified number of monomeric units.
Repeating units and copolymers: repeat unit or repeating unit is a part of a polymer whose repetition would produce the complete polymer chain by linking the repeat units together. Periodic copolymers have units arranged in a repeating sequence.
Fertilisers: any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply plant nutrients.
Essential elements and % composition: this lesson investigates the elements needed for plant growth, to understand the need for fertilisers and to practise % composition calculations.
Haber and Otswald process: the Haber process uses nitrogen from the air and combines it with hydrogen from natural gas. In the Ostwald process nitrogen monoxide is initially formed then nitrogen dioxide dissolves in water.
Nuclear chemistry: the sub-field of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, and transformations in the nuclei of atoms, such as nuclear transmutation and nuclear properties.
Radiation types and penetration:
Alpha particle – is a helium nucleus, two protons and two neutrons. It has a large mass, compared to other ionising radiations, and a strong positive charge.
Beta particle – is a fast moving electron. It has a very small mass and a negative charge.
Gamma ray – is a high-energy electromagnetic wave. Gamma rays are caused by changes within the nucleus. They are part of the electromagnetic spectrum and so travel at the speed of light. They have no mass and no charge.
Nuclear equations: A nucleus changes into a new element by emitting alpha. or beta particles. These changes are described using nuclear equations.
Calculating half life: explore half life, understand radioactive decay and explore half life calculations.