# Physics - Higher Index

## Online Lessons for Students in Scotland learning Higher Physics

- Uncertainties
- Motion
- Forces, energy and power
- Collisions, Explosions and Impulse
- Gravitation
- Special Relativity
- The Expanding Universe
- Measuring and Monitoring AC
- Current, Potential Difference, Power and Resistance
- Capacitors
- Semiconductors and p-n junctions
- The Standard Model
- Forces on Charged Particles
- Nuclear Reactions
- Wave-particle Duality
- Interference
- Refraction of Light
- Inverse Square Law
- Spectra

Lesson one is an introduction to Physics.

Lesson two is an introduction to higher physics.

Uncertainties: the uncertainty is the experimenter’s best estimate of how far an experimental quantity might be from the “true value”.

Uncertainties (2): the uncertainty is the experimenter’s best estimate of how far an experimental quantity might be from the “true value”.

Our dynamic Universe: this lesson includes motions, forces, collisions, explosions, impulse, gravitation, expanding universe and more

Motion: in physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its position. Motion is mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, speed, and time.

Motion graphs: the motion of objects can be analysed using equations and graphs. These tools allow other aspects of motion such as acceleration and displacement to be determined or modelled.

Equations of motion: equations that describe the behaviour of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time. More specifically, the equations of motion describe the behaviour of a physical system as a set of mathematical functions in terms of dynamic variables.

Projectile motion: a form of motion experienced by an object or particle that is projected near the Earth’s surface and moves along a curved path under the action of gravity only.

Forces: a force is an influence that can change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity, i.e., to accelerate. Force can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity.

Tension: the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, a cable, chain, or similar object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.

Forces at angles: If you apply force at an angle instead of parallel to the direction of motion, you have to supply more force to perform the same amount of work

Objects on a slope: If you apply force at an angle instead of parallel to the direction of motion, you have to supply more force to perform the same amount of work

Energy and power: power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second

Collisions, explosions and impulse: as in all collisions, momentum is conserved in this example. But calculations comparing kinetic energy before and after the collision show kinetic energy is not conserved. This is an inelastic collision. If kinetic energy before is the same as after, then the collision is elastic. Momentum is the product of a moving object’s mass and velocity. Impulse is defined as the product of average force and time of contact for a collision.

Momentum: linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. It is a vector quantity, possessing a magnitude and a direction.

Impulse: the product of average force and time of contact for a collision.

Gravitation: gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are attracted to one another.

Gravitation (2): gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are attracted to one another.

Special relativity: the special theory of relativity, or special relativity for short, is a scientific theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

Frames of reference: a frame of reference consists of an abstract coordinate system whose origin, orientation, and scale are specified by a set of reference points ― geometric points whose position is identified both mathematically and physically.

Time Dilation: in physics and relativity, time dilation is the difference in the elapsed time as measured by two clocks. It is either due to a relative velocity between them or to a difference in gravitational potential between their locations. When unspecified, “time dilation” usually refers to the effect due to velocity.

Length contraction: the phenomenon that a moving object’s length is measured to be shorter than its proper length, which is the length as measured in the object’s own rest frame.

The expanding Universe: the expansion of the Universe is the increase in distance between any two given gravitationally unbound parts of the observable universe with time.

The Doppler Effect: The Doppler Effect or Doppler Shift is the change in frequency of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

Red and Blue Shift: redshift and blueshift describe how light shifts toward shorter or longer wavelengths as objects in space (such as stars or galaxies) move closer or farther away from us.

Hubble’s Law: Hubble’s Law, also known as the Hubble-Lemaître law, is the observation in physical cosmology that galaxies are moving away from Earth at speeds proportional to their distance.

The expanding universe (2): The expansion of the universe is the increase in distance between any two given gravitationally unbound parts of the observable universe with time.

Th Big Bang Theory: the prevailing cosmological model explaining the existence of the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

Electricity: the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge.

Measuring and monitoring AC: most of our everyday uses of electricity are when electrons are moving in conductors – this is current flow as opposed to static electricity. Direct current (d.c.) is a one-way flow of electrons from negative to positive terminals of a power supply. Alternating current (a.c.) is an oscillation of electrons or ‘back and forward’ movement.

AC and DC: direct current (d.c.) is a one-way flow of electrons from negative to positive terminals of a power supply. Alternating current (a.c.) is an oscillation of electrons or ‘back and forward’ movement.

Current, potential difference, power and resistance: Using equations in the current, resistivity, and resistance sections, another equation for the potential difference can be found.

Revision of N5 Electricity: this lesson assists in revising Nat 5 Electricity.

Electrical sources and internal resistance: an electrical cell is made from materials (metal or chemicals, for example). All materials have some resistance. Therefore, a cell must have resistance. This resistance is called the internal resistance of the cell. A cell can be thought of as a source of electromotive force (EMF) with a resistor connected in series.

Internal resistance: A practical electrical power source which is a linear electric circuit may, according to Thévenin’s theorem, be represented as an ideal voltage source in series with an impedance. This impedance is termed the internal resistance of the source.

Capacitors: a capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance.

Capacitors (2): a capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance.

Energy and capacitance: capacitance is the ratio of the amount of electric charge stored on a conductor to a difference in electric potential.

Semiconductors and p-n unctions: PN junctions are fabricated from a monocrystalline piece of semiconductor with both a P-type and N-type region in proximity at a junction. The transfer of electrons from the N side of the junction to holes annihilated on the P side of the junction produces a barrier voltage.

Semiconductors: a semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as metallic copper, and an insulator, such as glass.

P-N junctions: PN junctions are fabricated from a monocrystalline piece of semiconductor with both a P-type and N-type region in proximity at a junction. The transfer of electrons from the N side of the junction to holes annihilated on the P side of the junction produces a barrier voltage.

Particles and waves: wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantum entity may be described as either a particle or a wave. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts “particle” or “wave” to fully describe the behaviour of quantum-scale objects

The Standard Model: The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces in the Universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

The Standard Model (2): The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces in the Universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

Forces on charged particles in electric fields: the force on a charged particle due to an electric field is directed parallel to the electric field vector in the case of a positive charge, and anti-parallel in the case of a negative charge.

Forces on charged particles in magnetic fields: a charged particle experiences a force when moving through a magnetic field. Since the magnetic force is perpendicular to the direction of travel, a charged particle follows a curved path in a magnetic field.

Particle accelerators: a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to contain them in well-defined beams.

Nuclear reactions: in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is a process in which two nuclei, or a nucleus and an external subatomic particle, collide to produce one or more new nuclides.

Radioactive decay: the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation. A material containing unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Three of the most common types of decay are alpha decay, beta decay, and gamma decay

Fission and fusion reactions: Both fission and fusion are nuclear reactions that produce energy, but the processes are very different. Fission is the splitting of a heavy, unstable nucleus into two lighter nuclei, and fusion is the process where two light nuclei combine together releasing vast amounts of energy.

Wave-particle duality: the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantum entity may be described as either a particle or a wave.

The photoelectric effect: the emission of electrons when electromagnetic radiation, such as light, hits a material. Electrons emitted in this manner are called photoelectrons.

Interference: in physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

Interference (2): in physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

Diffraction gratings: A diffraction grating is an optical element that divides(disperses) light composed of lots of different wavelengths(e.g., white light) into light components by wavelength.

Refraction of light: refraction is the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another or from a gradual change in the medium.

Refraction of light (2): refraction is the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another or from a gradual change in the medium.

Inverse square law: in science, an inverse-square law is any scientific law stating that a specified physical quantity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.

Irradiance: in radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux received by a surface per unit area. The SI unit of irradiance is the watt per square metre. The CGS unit erg per square centimetre per second is often used in astronomy.

Spectra: the electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

Spectra and the model of the atom: The Bohr Model or Rutherford – Bohr Model, presented by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, is a system consisting of a small, dense nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons—similar to the structure of the Solar System.

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